Redwood Cones and Foliage

Figures of Speech used in the Bible

Introduction Copyright 2006 - 2011 by Mario D. Vaden


This aspect of Bible study has been a favorite since 1983 when I was introduced to the importance. These ways of using words are as useful today as they were milleniums ago. Figures of Speech can be used for books, articles and speeches. When used skillfully, they are a higher level of communication than just a strict literal language. Whether or not you believe the scripture, these arrangements or words are worth learning now.

Also read a favorite topic: The Parable of the Unjust Steward

This page is about the figurative aspect of scripture and Dr. Bullinger's list of Figures of Speech Used in the Bible, written as Fig. of Sp. afterward. His bible study resource is indespensible: a standard against which to compare all other related writings. An outline follows.

I offer a few comments to clarify the nature of Fig. of Sp., but kept it brief. Dr. Bullinger's list at the end has short descriptions, but if you can order his book, it can launch your study.

A great difficulty for people is not a lack of scripture, but that they have it in pieces. Almost anybody can open a Bible and read verses and understand a few passages. But for many folks, the Bible is like a box of jigsaw pieces: it's supposed to form a picture if put together, but until then it's an accumulation of pieces. Fig. of Sp. are a set of keys that enable scripture to fit together: understood and not just memorized. Even people of the Bible faced similar challenges about understanding scripture (Acts 8:30 & 31 - "Understandest thou what thou readest? ... How can I, except some man should guide me?"). The scrolls and texts they read contained the same Fig. of Sp. that we need to learn. Even centuries ago, Fig. of Sp. was part of the learning process.

Fig. of Sp. is a biblical key, if not the single greatest key to unlock the meaning of the Bible. Fig. of Sp. are to writing and speaking what spices are to cooking, or what lenses may be to photography.

Compare to Cooking

An expert chef can prepare one kind of meat a dozen ways using different spices: spicey, sweet, aromatic, etc.. Meats can be made sweet, and candy can be made spicy. The strength and variations almost see no limits.

Likewise, thoughts can be inserted into statements and paragraphs a dozen ways with different Fig. of Sp..

Compare to Photography

A wide angle lens can be to photography, what a figure of speech is to words. Some figures lessen emphasis like Euphamism. Others magnify extremely like exaggeration. With an ultra wide angle lens, we can make the tree in front look huge and the person behind seem small. Or, place the person in front making the discoverer look bigger than their discovery. We can also hold the camera and lens to include everything, as Asyndeton (many ands) emphasizes every aspect in a paragraph.

Figurative words used with skill and precision are even more effective and versatile, because a paragraph may absorb a half dozen figures, whereas a camera typically has one lens attached.

The Bible is an eastern book. The words, context and vocabulary pertain to people of a land to our east. And the words of the Bible are ancient as well as eastern. In the west of present times, people may say "she kicked the bucket" to express that a woman died. Now then, why not understand that during ancient times in the East, death or a stroke was expressed by "became a pillar of salt". As in the account of Lot's wife. Why should kicking the bucket sound less rediculous than becoming a pillar of salt? Either way, both statements mean the same.

Jeremiah 15:16 says "Thy words were found , and I did eat them; and thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of mine heart: for I am called by thy name, O LORD God of hosts." Did Jeremiah grab parchment and gnaw off bites; chewing the fragments like beef jerky? Or do we see a figure of speech?

God inspired a perfect (Psalm 12:6) use of Fig. of Sp.. Scripture says in 2 Peter 1:20, 21) indicates that men who spoke and wrote scripture, wrote what God wanted. The men did not author the content. They had their own vocabulary, and speaking according to God's energizing, every figure of speech they used, incurred perfection. Fig. of Sp. are legitimate arrangements of words including deviations from grammatical rules. Without properly understanding Fig. of Sp. in the Bible, we cannot lock-pick our way to the meaning of scriptures.

Some people teach that Fig. of Sp. are whenever words in the Bible deviate from fact or truth. That is wrong. Some Fig. of Sp. are factual. One example is "Many Ands" or "Polysyndeton" can be factual . A figure of speech may deviate from fact, or instead may be an arrangement of factual words. It's better to say that if a words deviate from fact, they can be a figure of speech.

Some people teach that Fig. of Sp. draw attention. Again, that is innacurate. A figure of speech like euphamism can reduce attention or soften a situation, like in the old testament where David was in a cave where Saul was "covering his feet." That means Saul was "going to the bathroom." Also, death is referred to as "falling asleep" to soften the matter. The arrangement of words may or may not draw attention.

In Fig. of Sp. Used in the Bible by Dr. Bullinger, he wrote about a train: as long as it keeps moving, everything seems normal. But as soon as it starts slowing, passengers may react by turning heads to see what is going on, because momentum changed. He compared the train to how Fig. of Sp. can change the pattern or pace of writing and speech. That is another aspect worth teaching for some of the figures.

On this subject, Dr. Bullinger's book is basically the most outstanding collection of knowledge about Fig. of Sp. in the Bible. He provides names of Fig. of Sp. from several languages. The book is worth reading, even for casual learning of Fig. of Sp..



Fig. of Sp. outline according to Dr. E.W. Bullinger

Read "Fig. of Sp. Used in the Bible" by Dr. Bullinger for thorough explanations.

This list is not intimidating if you have a hunger to learn. Dr. Bullinger's book "Fig. of Sp. used in the Bible" has all of the outline below. I picked one figure of speech per night from his book. and learned one step at a time. This list should offer a glimpse into just how thorough Dr. Bullinger was about studying this.

PART ONE - Figures Involving ... Omission
1. Affecting words
2. Affecting the sense

PART TWO - Figures Involving ... Addition
1. Affecting words
2. Affecting the sense, by way of:

Repetition
Amplification
Description
Conclusion
Interposition
Reasoning

PART THREE - Figures Involving ... Change
1. Affecting the meaning and usage of words
2. Affecting the order and arrangement of words
3. Affecting the application of words, as to:

Sense
Persons
Subject-matter
Time
Feeling
Reasoning


PART ONE - Figures Involving Omission

  1. AFFECTING WORDS
    • El-lips'-is ; or, Omission When a gap is purposely left in a sentence through the omissiion of some word or words.
      1. Absolute Ellipsis. Where the omitted word or words are to be supplied from the nature of the subject.
        1. Noun and Pronouns (Gen. 14:19,20. Ps. 21:12).
        2. Verbs and participles (Gen. 26:7. Ps. 4:2).
        3. Certain connected words in the same member of a passage (Gen. 25:32. Matt. 25:9). Called Brachyology .
        4. A whole clause in a connected passage (Gen. 30:27. 1 Tim. 1:3,4).
      2. Relative Ellipsis.
        1. Where the omitted word is to be supplied from a cognate word in the context (Ps. 76:11).
        2. Where the omitted word is to be supplied from a related or contrary word (Gen. 33:10. Ps. 7:11).
        3. Where the omitted word is to be supplied from analogous or related words (Gen. 50:23. Isaiah 38:12).
        4. Where the omitted word is contained in another word, the one word comprising the two significations (Gen. 43:33).
      3. Ellipsis of Repitition.
        1. Simple; where the Ellipsis is to be supplied from a preceding or a succeding clause (Gen. 1:30. 2Cor. 6:16).
        2. Complex; where the two clauses are mutually involed, and the Ellipsis in the former clause is to be supplied from the latter; and, at the same time, an Ellipsis in the latter clause it be supplied from the former (Hebrews 12:20).
    • Zeug'-ma ; or, Unequal Yoke When one verb is yoked on to two subjects, while grammatically a second verb is required.
      1. Proto-zeugma, or, Ante-yoke or Fore-yoke (Gen. 4:20. 1Tim. 4:3).
      2. Meso-zeugma, or, Middle yoke (Luke 1:64).
      3. Hypo-zeugma, or End yoke (Acts 4:27,28).
      4. Syne-zeugmenon, or, Joint yoke (Ex. 20:18).
    • A-syn'-de-ton ; or, No-Ands (Mark 7:21-23. Luke 14:13). The usual conjunction is omitted, so that the point to be emphasised may be quickly reached and ended with an emphatic climax (compare to Polysyndeton, and Luke 14:21).
    • Aph-aer'-e-sis ; or, Front Cut (Jer. 22:24). The cutting off of a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word.
    • APOCOPE: or, End-Cut.
  2. AFFECTING THE SENSE.
    • Ap-o-si-opes'-is ; or, Sudden Silence It may be associated with:-
      1. Some great promise (Ex. 32:32).
      2. Anger and threatening (Gen. 3:22).
      3. Grief and complaint (Gen. 25:22. Ps. 6:3).
      4. Inquiry and deprecation (John 6:62).
    • Mei-o'-sis ; or a Belittleing (Gen. 18:27. Numbers 13:33). A belittleing of one thing to magnify another.
    • Ta-pei-no'-sis ; or, Demeaning (Gen. 27:44. Romans 4:19). The lessoning of a thing in order to increase and intensify that same thing. (Compare Meiosis .)
    • Cat-a'-bas-is ; or, Gradual Descent (Philippians 2:6-8). The opposite of Anabasis. Used to emphasise humiliation, sorrow, etc.
    • Syl'-lo-gis'-mus ; or, Omission of the Conclusion (1Samuel 17:4-7). The conclusion, though implied, is unexpressed, in order to add emphasis to it.
    • En'-thy-me-ma ; or, Omission of Premiss (Matt. 27:19). Where the conclusion is stated, and one or both of the premisses are omitted.

PART TWO - Figures Involving Addition

  1. AFFECTING WORDS
    1. Repetition of Letters and Syllables
      • Ho-moe-o-pro'-pher-on ; or, Alliteration (Judges 5). The repetiton of the same letter or syllable at commencement of successive words.
      • Ho'-moe-o-tel-eu'-ton ; or, Like Endings (Mark 12:30). The repetition of the same letters or syllables at the end of successive words. Used also of an omision in the text caused by such-like endings: the scribe's eye going back to the latter of such similar words, instead of the former. See Joshua 2:1.
      • Ho-moe-o'-pto-ton ; or, Like Inflections (2Tim. 3:2,3). Similar endings arising from the same inflection of verbs, nouns, etc. . This figure belongs peculiarly to the original languages.
      • Par'-o-moe-o'-sis ; or, Like-Sounding Inflections (Matt. 11:17). The repetition of inflections similar in sound.
      • Ac-ro'-stichion ; or, Acrostic (Ps. 119). Repetition of the same or successive letters at the beginnings of words or clauses.
    2. The Repetition of the Same Word
      • Ep'-i-zeux'-is ; or, Duplication (Gen. 22:11. Ps. 77:16). The repetition of the same word in the same sense.
      • An-a'-pho-ra ; or, Like Sentence Beginnings (Deuteronomy 28:3-6). The repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive sentences.
      • Ep'-an-a-leps'is ; or, Resumption (1Cor. 10:29. Philippians 1:24). The repetition of the same word after a break or parenthesis.
      • Po'ly-syn'de-ton ; or, Many Ands (Gen. 22:9,11. Joshua 7:24. Luke 14:21). The repetition of the word "and" at the beginning of successive clauses, each independent, important, and emphatic, with no climax at the end (Compare Aysndeton and Luke 14:13).
      • Par'-a-di-a'-stol-e ; or, Neithers and Nors (Ex. 20:10. Romans 8:35,38,39). The repetition of the disjunctives niether and nor, or, either and or.
      • Ep-i-stro-phe ; or, Like Sentence-Endings (Gen. 13:6. Ps. 24:10). The repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive sentences.
      • Ep-i'-pho-za ; or, Epistrophe in Argument (2Cor. 11:22). The repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive sentences used in argument.
      • Ep'-an-a-di-plo'-sis ; or, Encircling (Gen. 9:3. Ps. 27:14). The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning and end of a sentence.
      • Ep-a-dip'-lo-sis ; or, Double Encircling (Ps. 47:6). Repeated Epanadiplosis (see above).
      • An'-a-di-plo'-sis ; or, Like Sentence Endings and Beginnings (Gen. 1:1,2. Ps. 121:1,2). The word or words concluding one sentence are repeated at the beginning of another.
      • Climax ; or, Gradation (2Peter 1:5-7). Anadiplosis repeated in successive sentences (see " Anadiplosis " , above).
      • Mes-ar-chi'-a ; or, Beginning and Middle Repetition (Ecclesiastes 1:2). The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning and middle of successive sentences.
      • Mes-o-di-plo'-sis ; or, Middle Repetition (2Cor. 4:8,9). The repetition of the same word or words in the middle of successive sentences.
      • Mes-o-tel-eu'-ton ; or, Middle and End Repetition (2Kings 19:7). The repetition of the same word or words in the middle and at the end of successive sentences.
      • Repetitio ; or, Repetition (2Chronicles 20:35-37. John 14:1-4). Repetition of the same word or words irregularly in the same passage.
      • Po-ly-pto'-ton ; or, Many Inflections The repetition of the same part of speech in different inflections.
        1. Verbs (Gen. 50:24. 2Kings 21:13).
        2. Nouns and pronouns (Gen. 9:25. Romans 11:36).
        3. Adjectives (2Cor. 9:8).
      • ANTANACLASIS: or, Word-Clashing, and
      • Plok'-e ; or, Word-Folding (Jer. 34:17). The repetition of the same word in a different sense, implying more than the first use of it.
      • Syn'-oe-cei-o'-sis ; or, Cohabitation (Matt. 19:16,17). The repetition of the same word in the same sentence with an extended meaning.
      • Syl-leps'-is (1); or, Combination (2Chronicles 31:8). The repetition of the sense without the repetition of the word.
    3. The Repetition of Different Words
      1. In a similar order (but same sense).
        • Sym'-plo-ke ; or, Interwining (1Cor. 15:42-44). The repetition of different words in successive sentences in the same order and the same sense.
      2. In a different order (but same sense).
        • Ep-an'-od-os ; or, Inversion (Gen. 10:1-31. Isaiah 6:10). The repetition of the same word or words in an inverse order, the sense being unchanged.
        • Ant-i-me-tab'-o-le ; or, Counterchange (Gen. 4:4,5. Isaiah 5:20). A word or words repeated in a revers order, with the object of opposing them to one another.
      3. Similar in sound, but different in sense.
        • Par-eg'-men-on ; or, Derivation (Matt. 16:18). The repetition of words derived from the same root.
        • Par-o-no-ma'-si-a : or, Rhyming Words (Gen. 18:27). The repetition of words similar in sound, but not necessarily in sense.
        • Par-e-che'-sis ; or, Foreign Paronomasia (Romans 15:4). The repetition of words similar in sound, but different in language.
      4. Different in sound, but similar in sense
        • Syn-o-ny-mi-a ; or, Synonymous Words (Proverbs 4:14,15). The repetition of words similar in sense, but different in sound and origin.
        • Repeated Negation ; or Many Noes (John 10:28). The repetition of divers negatives.
    4. The Repetition of Sentences and Phrases
      • Cy-clo-id'-es ; or, Circular Repetition (Ps. 80:3,7,19). The repetition of the same phrase at regular intervals.
      • Am-oe-bae'-on ; or, Refrain (Ps. 136). The repetition of the same phrase at the end successive paragraphs.
      • Coe'-no-tes ; or, Combined Repetition (Ps. 118:8,9). The repetition of two different phrases, one at the beginning, and the other at the end of successive paragraphs.
      • Ep-i'-bo-le ; or, Overlaid Repetition (Ps. 29:3,4,5,7,8,9). The repetition of the same phrase at irregular intervals.
      • SYNANTESIS: or, Introverted Repetition.
    5. The Repetition of Subjects
      • Parallelism ; or Parallel Lines The repetition of similar, synonymous, or opposite thoughts or words in parallel or successive lines. Compare to " Correspondence " .
        1. Simple synonymous , or gradational . When the lines are parallel in thought, and in the use of synonymous words (Gen. 4:23,24. Ps. 1:1).
        2. Simple antithetic , or opposite. When the words are contrasted in the two or more lines, being opposed in sense the one to the other (Proverbs 10:1).
        3. Simple synthetic , or constructive. When the parallelism consists only in the similar form of construction (Ps. 19:7-9).
        4. Complex alternate . When the lines are placed alternately (Gen. 19:25. Proverbs 24:19,20).
        5. Complex repeated alternation . The repetition of two parallel subjects in several lines (Isaiah 65:21,22).
        6. Complex extended alternation . Alternation extended so as to consist of three or more lines (Judges 10:17).
        7. Complex introversion . When the parallel lines are so placed that the first corresponds with the last, the second with the last but one, etc. (Gen. 3:19. 2Chronicles 32:7,8).
      • Correspondence . This term is applied to repetition of a subject or subjects, which reappear in varying order, thus determing the " Structure " of any portion of the Sacred Text. This Correspondence is found in the folowing forms:-
        1. Alternate. Where the subjects of the alternate members correspond with each other, either by way of similarity or contrast.
          1. Extended. Where there are two series, but each consisting of several members (Ps. 72:2-17. Ps. 132.).
          2. Repeated. Where there are more than two series of subjects, either consisting of two members each (Ps. 26. Ps. 145.), or consisting of more than two members each (Ps. 24).
        2. Introverted. Where the first subject of the one series of members corresponds with the last subject of the second (Gen. 43:3-5. Leviticus 14:51,52).
        3. Complex or Combined. Where both Alternation and Introversion are combined together in various ways (Ex. 20:8-11. Ps. 105).
  2. AFFECTING THE SENSE (Figures of Rhetoric)
    1. REPETIO ; or, REPETITON (2 Chronicles 20:35-37. John 14:1-4). Repetition of the same word or words irregularly in the same passage.
      • Pros-a-po'-do-sis ; or, Detailing (John 16:8-11). A return to previous words or subjects for purposes of definition or explanation.
      • EPIDIEGESIS: or, Re-Statement.
      • EPEXEGESIS: or, Fuller Explaining.
      • Ex-er-gas'-i-a ; or Working Out (Zechariah 6:12,13). A repetition so as to work out or illustrate what has already been said.
      • Ep'-i-mo-ne ; or, Lingering (John 21:15-17). Repetition in order to dwell upon, for the sake of impressing.
      • Her-men'-ei-a ; or, Interpretation (John 7:39). An explanation immediately following a statement to make it more clear.
      • Bat-to-log'-i-a ; or, Vain Repetition (1Kings 18:26). Not used by the Holy Spirit: only by man.
    2. AMPLIFICATIO
      • Ple'-on-asm ; or, Redundancy Where what is said is, immediately after, put in another or opposite way to make it impossible for the sense to be missed.
            The Figure may affect (1) words (Gen. 16:8); or (2) sentences (Gen. 1:20. Deuteronomy 32:6).
      • Per-i'-phras-is ; or, Circumlocution (Gen. 20:16. Judges 5:10). When a description is used instead of the name.
      • Hy-per'-bo-le ; or Exaggeration (Gen. 41:47. Deuteronomy 1:28). When more is said than is literally meant.
      • An-ab'-a-sis ; or, Gradual Ascent (Ps. 18:37,38). An increase of emphasis or sense in successive sentences.
      • Cat-a'-bas-is ; or, Gradual Descent (Philippians 2:6-8). The opposite of Anabasis. Used to emphasise humiliation, sorrow, etc.
      • Me-ris'-mos ; or, Distribution (Romans 2:6-8). An enumeration of the parts of a whole which has been just previously mentioned.
      • Syn'-ath-roes'-mos ; or, Enumeration (1Tim. 4:1-3). The enumeration of the parts of a whole which has not been mentioned.
      • Ep'-i-troch-as'-mos ; or Summarising (Hebrews 11:32). A running lightly over by way of summary.
      • Di-ex'-od-os ; or, Expansion (Jude 12,13). A lengthening out by copious exposition of facts.
      • Ep-i'-the-ton ; or, Epithet (Gen. 21:16. Luke 22:41). The naming of a thing by describing it.
      • Syn'-the-ton ; or, Combination (Gen. 18:27). A placing together of two words by usage.
      • HORISMOS: or, Definition.
    3. DESCRIPTIO
      • Hy'-po-ty-po'-sis ; or, Word Picture (Isaiah 5:26-30). Representation of objects or actions by words.
      • Pros'-o-po-graph'-i-a ; or, Description of Persons (Matt. 3:4). A vivid description of a person by detailed delineation.
      • EFFICTIO: or, Word-Portrait
      • CHARACTERISMOS: or, Description of Character
      • Eth'-o-poe'-i-a ; or, Description of Manners (Isaiah 3:16). A description of a person's peculiarities as to manners, caprices, habits, etc..
      • Path'-o-poe'-i-a ; or, Pathos (Luke 19:41,42). The expression of feeling or emotion.
      • Mi-me-sis ; or, Description of Sayings (Ex. 15:9). Used when the sayings and etc., of another are described or imitated by way of emphasis.
      • Prag'-mato-graph-i-a ; or Description of Actions (Joel 2:1-11).
      • Chron'-o-graph'-i-a ; or, Description of Time (John 10:22). The teaching of something important by mentioning the time of an occurrence.
      • Per-i'-stas-is ;or, Description of Circumstances (John 4:6).
      • Pro'-ti-me-sis ; or, Description of Order (1Cor. 15:5-8). The enumeration of things according to their places of honour or importance.
    4. CONCLUSIO
      • Ep'-i-cri'-sis ; or, Judgement (John 12:33). A short sentence added at the end by way of an additional conclusion.
      • Ep-i'-ta-sis ; or, Amplification (Ex. 3:19). Where a concluding sentence is added by way of increasing the emphasis.
      • An'-e-sis ; or Abating (2Kings 5:1). The addition of a concluding sentence which diminishes the effect of what has been said.
      • Ep'-i-pho-ne'-ma ; or, Exclamation (Ps. 135:21). An exclamation at the conclusion of a sentence.
      • Pro-ec'-the-sis ; or Justification (Matt. 12:12). A sentence added at the end by way of justification.
      • Ep'-i-ther-a-pei'-a ; or, Qualification (Philippians 4:10). A sentence added at the end to heal, soften, mitigate, or modify what has been before said.
      • Exemplum ; or, Example (Luke 17:32). Concluding a sentence by employing an example.
      • Sym'-per-as'-ma ; or, Concluding Summary (Matt. 1:17). When what has been said is briefly summed up.
    5. INTERPOSITIO
      • Par-en'-the-sis ; or, Parenthesis (2Peter 1:19). Insertion of a word or sentence, parenthetically, which is necessary to explain the context.
      • Ep'i-tre-chon ; or, Running Along (Gen. 15:13. John 2:9). A sentence, not complete in itself, thrown in as an explanatory remark. A form of Parenthesis (see below).
      • Cat'-a-ploc'-e ; or, Sudden Exclamation (Ezekiel 16:23). This name is given to a parenthesis when it takes the form of a sudden exclamation.
      • Par-em'-bol'-e ; or, Insertion (Philippians 3:18,19). Inseration of a sentence between others which is independent and complete in itself.
      • In'-ter-jec'-ti-o ; or, Interjection (Ps. 42:2). Parenthetic addition by way of feeling.
      • E-jac'-u-la'-ti-o ; or, Ejaculation (Hosea 9:14). A parenthesis which consists of a short wish or prayer.
      • Hy-po-ti-me'-sis ; or, Under Estimating (Romans 3:5). Parenthetic addition by way of apology or excuse.
      • ANAERESIS: or, Detraction.
    6. RATIOCINATIO
      • PARADIEGESIS: or, A Bye-Leading.
      • SUSTENTATIO: or, Suspense.
      • Par-a-leips-is ; or, a Passing By (Hebrews 11:32). When a wish is expressed to pass by a subject, which is, notwithstanding, briefly alluded by subsequently.
      • PROSLEPSIS: or, Assumption.
      • Ap-o'-phas-is ; or, Insinuation (Philemon 19.). When, professing to suppress certain matters, the writer adds the insinuation negatively.
      • CATAPHASIS: or, Affirmation.
      • ASTEISMOS: or, Politeness.

PART THREE - Figures Involving Change

  1. AFFECTING THE MEANING OF WORDS
    • ENALLAGE: or, Exchange.
    • ANTEMEREIA: or, Exchange of Parts of Speech
    • Ant'-i-ptos'-is ; or, Exchange of Cases (Ex. 19:6, compare to 1Peter 2:9). One Case is put for another Case, the governing Noun being used as the Adjective instead of the Noun in regimen .
    • Het'-er-o'-sis ; or, Exchange of Accidence . Exchange of one voice, mood, tense, person, number, degree, or gender for another.
      1. Of forms and voices (1Peter 2:6).
      2. Of moods (Gen. 20:7. Ex. 20:8).
      3. Of tenses (Gen. 23:11. Matt. 3:18).
      4. Of persons (Gen. 29:27. Daniel 2:36).
      5. Of adjectives (degree) and adverbs (2Tim. 1:18).
      6. Of nouns (number), adjectives, and pronouns (Gen. 3:8. Hebrews 7:7).
    • Hyp-al'-la-ge ; or, Interchange (Gen. 10:9. 1Kings 17:4). A word logically belonging to one connection is grammatically united with another.
    • Met-o'-ny-my ; or, Change of Noun When one name or noun is used instead of another, to which it stands in a certain relation.
      1. Of the Cause. When the cause is put for the effect (Gen. 23:8. Luke 16:29).
      2. Of the Effect. When the effect is put for the cause producing it (Gen. 25:23. Acts 1:18).
      3. Of the Subject. When the subject is put for something pertaining to it (Gen. 41:13. Deutronomy 28:5).
      4. Of the Adjunct. When something pertaining to the subject is put for the subject itself (Gen. 28:22. Job 32:7).
    • Met'-a-lep'-sis ; or, Double Metonymy (Gen. 19:8. Ecclesiastes 12:6. Hosea 14:2). Two metonymies, one contained in the other, but only one expressed.
    • Syn-ec'-do-che ; or, Transfer The exchange of one idea for another associated idea.
      1. Of the Genus. When the genus is put for the species, or universals for particulars (Gen. 6:12. Matt. 3:5).
      2. Of the Species. When the species is put for the genus, or particulars for universals (Gen. 3:19. Matt. 6:11).
      3. Of the Whole. When the whole is put for a part (Gen. 6:12).
      4. Of the Part. When a part is put for the whole (Gen. 3:19. Matt. 27:4).
    • Hen-di'-a-dys ; or, Two for One (Gen. 2:9. Ephesians 6:18). Two words used, but one thing meant.
    • Hen-di'-a-tris ; or, Three for One (Daniel 3:7). Three words used, but one thing meant.
    • Cat'-a-chres-is ; or, Incongruity One word used for another, contrary to the ordinary usage and meaning of it.
      1. Of two words, where the meanings are remotely akin (Leviticus 26:30).
      2. Of two words, where the meanings are different (Ex. 5:21).
      3. Of one word, where the Greek receives its real meaning by permutation from another language (Gen. 1:5. Matt. 8:6).
    • Met-al'-la-ge ; or, a Changing Over (Hosea 4:18). A different subject of thought substituted for the original subject.
    • Ant'-o-no-ma'-si-a or, Name Change (Gen. 31:21). The putting of a proper name for a Appellative or common Noun, or the reverse.
    • Eu'-phem-is'-mos ; or, Euphemy (Gen. 15:15). Where a pleasing expression is used for one that is unpleasant.
    • APLIATIO: or, Adjournment
    • Ant-i'-phras-is ; or, Permutation (Gen. 3:22). The use of a word or phrase in a sense opposite to its original signification.
  2. AFFECTING THE ARRANGEMENT AND ORDER OF WORDS
    1. SEPARATE WORDS
      • Hyp-er'bat-on ; or, Transposition (Romans 5:8). The placing of a word out of its usual order in a sentence.
      • An-a'-stro-phe ; or, Arraignment (Acts 7:48). The position of one word changed, so as to be out of its proper or usaul place in a sentence.
      • Syl-leps'-is (2); or, Change in Concord (John 21:12). A change in the grammatical concord in favour of a logical concord.
      • Tme'-sis ; or, Mid-Cut (Ephesians 6:8). A change by which one word is cut in two, and another word put in between.
    2. SENTENCES AND PHRASES
      • HYSTERON-PROTERON: or, The Last, First.
      • Hys'-ter-o-log'-ia ; or, The First Last (Gen. 10 and 11. 2Samuel 24). A prior mention of a subsequent event.
      • Hys'-ter-e-sis ; or, Subsequent Narration (Gen. 31:7, 8. Ps. 105:8). When later record gives supplemental or new particulars, not inserted in the historical record.
      • Sim'-ul-ta'-ne-um ; or Insertion (Revelation 16:13-16). A kind of historical parenthesis, an event being put out of its historical place between two others which are simultaneous.
      • Ant-i'-thes-is ; or, Contrast (Proverbs 15:17). A setting of one phrase in contrast with another.
      • E-nan-ti-o'-sis ; or, Contraries (Luke 7:44-46). Affirmatation or negation by contraries.
      • An'-a-co-lu'-thon ; or, Non-Sequence (Gen. 35:3. Mark 11:32). A breaking off the sequence of thought.
  3. AFFECTING THE APPLICATION OF WORDS
    1. AS TO SENSE
      • Sim'-i-le ; or, Resemblance (Gen. 25: 25. Matt. 7:24-27). A declaration that one thing resembles another. (Compare Metaphor , above.)
      • Syn'-cri-sis ; or, Repeated Simile (Isaiah 32:2). Repetition of a number of resemblances.
      • Met'-a-phor ' or, Representation (Matt. 26:26). A declaration that one thing is (or represents ) another: while Simile resembles it, and Hypocatastasis implies it.
      • Hy'-po-cat-as'-ta-sis ; or, Implication (Matt. 15:13; 16:6). An implied resemblance or representation.
      • Al'-le-go-ry ; or, Continued Comparison by Reprensentation ( Metaphor ) (Gen. 49:9. Galatians 4:22,24), and Implication ( Hypocatastasis ) (Matt. 7:3-5). Teaching a truth about one thing by substituting another for it which is unlike it.
      • Par-a-bol-a ; or, Parable i.e., Continued Simile (Luke 14:16-24). Comparison by continued resemblance.
      • APOLOGUE: or, Fable
      • Par-oe'-mi-a ; or Proverb (Gen. 10:9. 1Samuel 10:12). A wayside-saying in common use.
      • Type (Romans 5:14). A figure or ensample of something future, and more or less prophetic, called the Anti-type.
      • Symbol (Isaiah 22:22). A material object substituted for a moral, or spiritual truth.
      • E-nig'-ma ; or, Dark Saying (Gen. 49:10. Judges 14:14). A truth expressed in obscure language.
      • Po-ly-o-ny'-mi-a ; or, Many Names (Gen. 26:34,35. 2Kings 23:13). Persons or places mentioned under different names.
      • Gno'-me ; or, Quotation The citation of a well-known saying without quoting the author's name.
        1. Where the sense originally intended is preserved, though the words may vary (Matt. 26:31).
        2. Where the original sense is modified in the quotation or reference (Matt. 12:40).
        3. Where the sense is quite different from that which was first intended (Matt. 2:15).
        4. Where the words are from the Hebrew or from the Septuagint (Luke 4:18).
        5. Where the words are varied by omission, addition, or transposition (1Cor. 2:9).
        6. Where the words are changed by a reading, or an inference, or in number, person, mood, or tense. (Matt. 4:7).
        7. Where two or more citations are amalgamated (Matt. 21:13).
        8. Where Quotations are from books other than the Bible (Acts 17:28).
        • CHREIA
        • NOEMA
        • ACCOMODATIO
      • AMPHIBIOLOGIA: or, Double Meaning.
      • Ei'-ron-ei-a ; or, Irony . The expression of thought in a form that naturally conveys its opposite.
        1. Divine Irony. Where the speaker is Divine (Gen. 3:22. Judges 10:14).
        2. Human Irony. Where the speaker is a human being ( Job 12:2).
        3. Peirastic Irony. By way of trying or testing (Gen. 22:2).
        4. Simulated Irony. Where the words are used by man in dissimulation (Gen. 37:19. Matt. 27:40).
        5. Deceptive Irony. Where words are clearly false as well as hypocritical (Gen. 3:4,5. Matt. 2:8).
        • Ant-i'-phras-is ; or, Permutation (Gen. 3:22). The use of a word or phrase in a sense opposite to its original signification.
        • PERMUTATIO

        • SARCASMOS
      • Ox'-y-mor-on ; or Wise-Folly (1Tim. 5:6). A wise saying that seems foolish.
      • Id-i-o'-ma ; or, Idiom The peculiar usage of words and phrases, as illustrated in the language peculiar to one nation or tribe, as opposed to other languages or dialects.
        1. Idiomatic usage of verbs (Gen. 42:38. 1John 1:10).
        2. Special idiomatic usages of nouns and verbs (Gen. 33:11. Jer. 15:16).
        3. Idiomatic degrees of comparison (Luke 22:15).
        4. Idiomatic use of prepositions (Luke 22:49).
        5. Idiomatic use of numerals (Ps. 103:2).
        6. Idsiomatic forms of quotations (Ps. 109:5).
        7. Idiomatic forms of question (Luke 22:49).
        8. Idiomatic phrases (Gen. 6:2, 4. Matt. 11:25).
        9. Idioms arising from other Fig. of Sp. (see notes in margin).
        10. Chages of usage of words in the Greek language (Gen. 43:18. Matt. 5:25).
        11. Changes of usage of words in the English language (Gen. 24:21. 2Kings 3:9).
    1. AS TO PERSONS
      • Pros'-o-po-poe'-i-a ; or, Personification Things represented as persons.
        1. The members of the human body (Gen. 48:14. Ps. 35:10).
        2. Animals (Gen. 9:5. Job 12:7).
        3. The products of the earth (Nahum 1:4).
        4. Inanimate things (Gen. 4:10).
        5. Kingdoms, countries, and states (Ps. 45:12).
        6. Human actions, etc., attributed to things, etc. (Gen. 18:20. Ps. 85:10).
      • Ant'-i-pros-o'-po-poe-i-a ; or Anti-Personification (2Samuel 16:9). Persons represented as inanimate things.
      • An-throp'-o-path-ei'-a ; or, Condescension (Gen. 1:2; 8:21. Ps. 74:11. Jer. 2:13. Hosea 11:10). Ascribing to God what belongs to human and rational beings, irrational creatures, or inanimate things.
      • Ant-i-met-a-the'-sis ; or, Dialogue (1Cor. 7:16). A transference of speakers; as when the reader is addressed as if actually present.
      • Association ; or, Inclusion (Acts 17:27). When the speaker associates himself with those whom he addresses, or of whom he speaks.
      • Ap-o'-stro-phe ; or, Apostrophe When the speaker turns away from the real auditory whom he is addressing to speak to another, who may be-
        1. God (Nehemiah 6:9).
        2. Men (2Samuel 1:24,25).
        3. Animals (Joel 2:22).
        4. Inanimate things (Jer. 47:6).
      • Par-ec'-bas-is ; or, Digression (Gen. 2:8-15). A temporary turning aside from one subject to another.
    2. AS TO SUBJECT-MATTER
      • Met-a'-bas-is ; or, Transition (1Cor. 12:31). A passing from one subject to another.
      • Ep'-an-or-tho-sis ; or, Correction (John 16:32). A recalling of what has been said in order to substitute something stronger in its place.
      • Am'-phi-di-or-tho'-sis ; or, Double Correction (1Cor. 11:22). A correction setting right both hearer and speaker.
      • ATACHORESIS: or, Regression.
    3. AS TO TIME
      • Pro-lep's-is , ( Ampliatio ); or, Anticipation (Hebrews 2:8). Anticipating what is going to be, and speaking of future things as present.
    4. AS TO FEELING
      • Path'-o-poe'-i-a ; or, Pathos (Luke 19:41,42). The expression of feeling or emotion.
      • ATEISMOS: or, Urbanity.
      • An'-a-mne'-sis ; or, Recalling (Romans 9:3). An expression of feeling by way of recalling to mind.
      • Ben'-e-dic'-ti-o ; or, Blessing (Gen. 1:22,28. Matt. 5:3-11). An expression of feeling by way of benediction or blessing.
      • Eu'-che ; or, Prayer (Isaih 64:1,2). An expression of feeling by way of prayer,curse, or imprecation.
      • Par'-ae-net'-ic-on ; or, Exhortation (1Tim. 2). An expression of feeling by way of exhortation.
      • Oe'-on-is'-mos ; or, Wishing (Ps. 55:6). An expression of feeling by way of wishing or hoping for a thing.
      • Thau-mas'-mos ; or, Wondering (Romans 11:33). An expression of feeling by way of wonder.
      • Pae-sn'-si'-mos ; or, Exultation (Zephaniah 3:14). Calling on others to rejioce over something.
      • As'-ter-is'-mos ; or, Indicating (Ps. 133:1). Employing some word which directs special attention to some paticular point or subject.
      • Ec'-pho-ne'-sis ; or, Exclamation (Romans 7:24). An outburst of words, prompted by emotion.
      • A-po'-ria ; or, Doubt (Luke 16:3). An expression of feeling by way of doubt.
      • Ep'-i-ti-me'-sis ; or, Reprimand (Luke 24:25). An expression of feeling by way of censure, reproof, or reproach.
      • El-eu'-ther-i'-a ; or, Candour (Luke 13:32). The speaker, without intending offence, speaks with perfect freedom and boldness.
      • Ag'-an-ac-te'-sis ; or Indignation (Gen. 3:13. Acts 13:10). An expression of feeling by way of indignation.
      • APOSIOXIS: or, Detestation.
      • Dep-re-ca'-ti-o ; or, Deprecation (Ex. 32:32). An expression of feeling by the way of deprecation.
      • Di'-a-syrm-os ; or, Raillery (Matt. 26:50). Tearing away disguise, and showing up a matter as it really is.
      • CATAPLEXIS: or, Menace.
      • Ex'-ou-then-is'-mos ; or, Contempt (2Samuel 6:20). An expression of feeling by way of contempt.
      • Mal'-e-dic'-ti-o ; or, Imprecation (Isaiah 3:11). Expression of feeling by way of malediction and execration.
      • De'-i-sis ; or, Adjuration (Deuteronomy 4:26). An expression of feeling by oath or asseveration.
      • Chleu-as'-mos ; or, Mocking (Ps. 2:4). An expression of feeling by mocking and jeering.
    5. AS TO ARGUMENTATION
      • Er'-o-te-sis ; or, Interrogating (Gen. 13:9. Ps. 35:10). The asking of questions, not for information, or for an answer. Such questions may be asked (1) in positive affirmation, (2) in negative affirmation, (3) in afffirmative negation, (4) in demonstration, (5) in wonder and admiration, (6) in rapture, (7) in wishes, (8) in refusals and denials, (9) in doubts, (10) in admonition, (11), in expostulation, (12) in prohibition or dissuasion, (13) in pity and commiseration, (14) in disparagement, (15) in reproaches, (16) in lamentation, (17) in indignation, (18) in absurdities and impossibilities, (19) double questions.
      • Di'-a-log-is-mos ; or, Dialogue (Isaiah 63:1-6). When one or more persons are represented as speaking about a thing, instead of saying it oneself.
      • DIANOEA: or, an Animated Dialogue.
      • Affirmatio ; or, Affirmation (Philppians 1:18). Emphasising words to affirm what no one has disputed.
      • Neg-a'-ti-o ; or, Negattion (Galatians 2:5). A denial of that which has not been affirmed.
      • Ac-cis'-mus ; or, Apparent Refusal (Matt. 15:22-26). So named because it is an apparent or assumed refusal.
      • E'-ti-o-log'-ia ; or Cause Shown (Romans 1:16). Rendering a reason for what is said or done.
      • Ant-eis'-a-go-ge ; or, Counter Question (Matt. 21:23-25). The answering of one quetion by asking another.
      • ANISTROPHE: or Retort.
      • Ant-i-cat'-e-gor'-ia ; or, Tu Quoque (Ezekiel 18:25). Retorting upon another the very insinuation or accusation he has made against us.
      • Met-a-sta-sis ; or, Counter-Blame (1Kings 18:17,18). A transferring of the blame from one's self to another.
      • An'-a-coe-no-sis ; or, Common Cause (1 Cor. 4:21). An appeal to others as having interests in common.
      • Syn'-cho-re'-sis ; or, Concession (Habakkuk 1:13). Making a concession of one point in order to gain another.
      • Ep-i'-trop-e ; or, Admission (Ecclesiastes 11:9). Admission of wrong, in order to gain what is right.
      • PAROMOLOGIA: or, Confession.
      • Pro'-ther-a-pei'-a ; or, Conciliation (Matt. 19:16). Conciliating others, by way of precaution, because of something we are about to say.
      • PRODIORTHOSIS: or, Warning.
      • Pal'-in-od'-i-a ; or, Retracting (Revelation 2:6). Approval of one thing after reproving for another thing.
      • Pro-lep's-is , ( Occupatio ); or, Anticipation . Answering an argument by anticipating it before it is used.
        1. Open. When the anticipated objection is both answered and stated (Matt. 3:9).
        2. Closed. When the anticipated objection is either not plainly stated or not answered (Romans 10:18).